5. Almost 90% of the visible changes commonly attributed to aging are caused by the sun's ultraviolet (UV) rays. (Source: Skin Cancer Foundation) Even on a cloudy day, up to 80% of UV rays can pass through the clouds! (Source: American Academy of Dermatology)
4. There are two types of UV rays: UVB (the chief culprit behind sunburn), and UVA (which cause fine lines and wrinkles, leathering, and sagging). The best sunscreens provide "broad-spectrum" protection, so they protect against both UVA and UVB rays.
3. Your skin's epidermis is literally paper-thin, so UV rays can pierce through it easily. UVA rays penetrate the deepest, all the way to your dermis, where blood vessels and nerves are found.
2. Thinking of getting a "base" tan before your beach vacation? Think again. There's no safe way to prep the skin for UV rays. Any time the skin tans, it's a sign of injury. The only safe way to spend a day at the beach is to use sunscreen and stay protected from the sun.
1.Only 14%** of respondents in a recent survey by the American Academy of Dermatology wear a SPF moisturizer as part of their daily skin care.
*Source: Skin Care Foundation
**Source: American Academy of Dermatology
Greetings! Sometimes we find a news articles that are compelling. This is one such article we found in the South China Morning Press about everyday manicure and pedicure hazards to your clients. This is an article we all need to read. We hope you find it valuable.
PUBLISHED : Monday, 09 March, 2015, 6:16am
UPDATED : Monday, 09 March, 2015, 1:43pm
When you visit a nail salon, you expect to leave with beautifully done tips and toes, not a skin or nail infection. Yet, a fungal, viral or bacterial infection is something you risk contracting every time you have a regular manicure or pedicure. According to Dr John Yu Ho-tak, a specialist in dermatology at Matilda International Hospital, the most common infections nail salon customers may contract include tinea pedis, also known as athlete's foot; onychomycosis, a fungal infection of the nail; cellulitis, a potentially serious bacterial skin infection; and viral warts.
Owing to the use of contaminated instruments or a simple lack of hygiene, nail salons can be a hotbed for all kinds of nasty bacteria.
In 2004, singer Paula Abdul battled a staph infection on her thumb after getting a manicure at a Los Angeles nail salon. The infection reportedly took about a year to heal, with the former American Idol judge saying that the pain was so excruciating that even her hair touching her thumb caused her to scream.
Yu adds that it is also possible to develop hepatitis or even HIV through a manicure or pedicure, although the chances of this happening are slim.
A study by researchers in Brazil published in October 2014 in Aids Research and Human Retroviruses, described a case of a 22-year-old woman who had seemingly contracted HIV-1 from having shared manicure instruments with a cousin who was later found to be HIV-positive. The subject had no apparent risk factors for acquiring HIV, but genetic analysis of the viruses from both patients showed that they shared a common viral ancestor, suggesting that the virus was likely transmitted through the manicure tools.
As the nail service industry can be hard to regulate - even someone with minimal knowledge and training can buy a set of tools and call herself a nail technician - it is important to look out for yourself when visiting a nail salon.
First off, Yu advises you to pay attention to the hygiene practices of the technicians when you are at the nail salon. If they merely clean their manicure tools with an antiseptic solution, it's a red flag.
Good salons sterilise their equipment with autoclaves, special machines that use high-pressure, high-temperature steam to kill bacteria. Yu says that as long as the autoclaves are used correctly, they are highly effective against pathogens.
In addition to using a UV steriliser, Stephanie Millington, owner of Cupcake Nails in Tsim Sha Tsui, Kowloon, takes the extra step of wiping her tools down with rubbing alcohol before and after use, and cleaning them with a hospital-grade disinfectant between clients. At the end of the day, she also soaks the tools in rubbing alcohol.
Patty Lo, director of Nail Parlor in Central, ensures that all her customers receive new buffers and nail files, and, if they are getting a pedicure, toe separators as well. All metal instruments are sanitised in front of customers before being used. After the manicure or pedicure, they are sterilised in the salon's autoclave.
Yu adds that clean and autoclaved metal instruments should be opened in front of you. Towels can also harbour bacteria, so make sure that the technician uses only clean and freshly laundered towels or paper towels on you.
She should also use disposable gloves during the service, and if she uses disposable tools, such as pumice stones, nail brushes, cuticle sticks, and nail files - which are often shared between customers - all the better. In fact, you should always ask for a brand-new set to be used on you.
Pumice stones, which are used to smooth rough skin, are porous, making them the ideal breeding ground for bacteria. It's one mani-pedi tool you should never share.
If you want to be extra careful, bring your own tools and nail polish to the salon. Most nail technicians would not mind if you do. "I am more than happy to serve clients who wish to use their own manicure kit and nail polish," says Lo.
Just remember to thoroughly clean and disinfect all the instruments before and after use.
You should also consider the overall cleanliness of the nail salon. For example, is the floor clean and dry? Does the bin look like it gets emptied regularly? Are the tools neatly organised or strewn all over the place?
The footbaths, basins and step stools, too, should be clean. A study, published in October 2011 in Clinical Infectious Diseases, found that poorly sanitised footbaths in a number of North Carolina nail salons was the likely cause behind an outbreak of Mycobacterium fortuituminfection.
A similar outbreak - 143 cases - was reported among persons who visited nail salons in California in 2004. Mycobacteria can cause weeping lesions and painful ulcers, and it can be very difficult to treat.
At her salon, Millington says she uses pedicure bowls instead of piped tubs, as they are easier to clean. She drains the pedicure or manicure bowls after every use before scrubbing them with disinfectant, rinsing them and then leaving them to air-dry.
If your pedicure or manicure bowl looks dirty or you suspect that it has not been washed, demand that it be cleaned in front of you. It doesn't take long to scrub and dry and you will have peace of mind knowing that your feet are not sitting in a bacteria-laden pool.
Remember to also observe your nail technician while she is attending to you. If she is busy chatting to the other technicians and not completely focused on you, she may forget to clean her instruments or neglect to replace a dirty towel, or worse, accidentally cut you, leaving you vulnerable to infection.As a paying customer, you deserve good service, so speak up if you feel that your nail technician has fallen short in this area. Also watch that she washes her hands between customers.
Yu advises to avoid invasive or dangerous procedures, such as blading, which gets rid of the dry, dead skin on the soles of the feet, and cuticle cutting.
The cuticles are there to protect your nails' growth matrix - that part of the nail where growth starts. If the skin breaks, you risk getting an infection. A cuticle infection can also hamper the growth of your nails.
The best way to neaten cuticles is to soften them and push them back with a cuticle stick. If your nail technician is over-enthusiastic or aggressive with this step in your manicure or pedicure, tell her to go easy.
Finally, it is best to avoid getting a manicure or pedicure if you have an open cut or wound on your hands or feet. As many of the instruments in nail salons are reused, this will only increase your chances of picking up an infection.
Likewise, if you have a nail or skin infection, the sensible thing to do would be to wait until it has completely cleared before getting a manicure or pedicure. A responsible nail technician would also turn away any customer who appears to have a skin or nail infection.
Lo says that she always politely tells such customers to come back after their infection has cleared up.
"These infections tend to be contagious and we have to protect our nail technicians and other customers," she says.
This article appeared in the South China Morning Post print edition as Dirty secrets
Gettysburg Day Spa presents: Keto by Keyano Aromatics
Keto is a revolutionary nutriceutical designed to create a ketogenic fat burning state, while preserving lean body mass AND increasing collagen formation throughout the body!
KETO can work topically as a super charged collagen mask OR as a supplement that will help with joint pain, weight loss, beauty enhancement, athletic performance, and anti-aging!
Our aesthetician, Sandy, is an expert on this line and would love to answer all of your questions on Keto and Keyano Aromatics.
Keto is now available for sale at Gettysburg Day Spa. As well, there is a Keto facial! Call us or stop by for more info: 717-334-8423.
Keto is a revolutionary nutriceutical designed to create a ketogenic (fat burning state) while preserving lean body mass and increasing collagen formation throughout the body.
Keto restores and enhances your body’s natural beauty and vitality. Keto not only works topically but also from within to enhance your skin, hair, nails and body. Collagen helps restore the skin’s moisture, improving elasticity, tone and collagen matrix.
There are three different programs that utilize Keto. Keto can be used as a nutritional supplement by itself, combined with the Keto-Fit nutrition plan or the Keto Balance Program that includes Hair Tissue Mineral Analysis which is used to balance the bio-chemistry of the body. The Keto nutrition program provides a blueprint for optimal health.
What Is Keto?
Keto is comprised of a non GMO grass fed bovine collagen fused with MCT (medium chain triglycerides) predominately C8 or caprylic acid. Keto is a powdered form of medium-chain triglycerides combined with hydrolyzed collagen. MCT's are more rapidly absorbed by the body and more quickly metabolized as fuel. Collagen is the most important component of the dermis and connective tissues in the body and you lose 1 – 1 ½ percent per year after the age of 25. Non GMO
Serving size and timing
Add 1 tablespoon to water, coffee, tea, smoothie or other beverage 3 times per day, or as directed by a health care practitioner. Keto is best taken on an empty stomach.
Topically: Keto can also be used as a facial mask. Add a small amount of distilled or spring water to 2 tablespoon of Keto. Add 1 drop of Keyano Aromatherapy Face Formula. Apply to the face and leave on for 10 – 15 minutes and remove. Follow with Eterna Bella for amazing anti-aging results.
Benefits of Keto:
Ingestion of caprylic acid increases blood ketone levels, which increases fat burning and weight reduction. When combined with a high protein diet, particularly collagen peptides, individuals reduce their food intake due to the satiating effect and increase in metabolic rate.
The MCT’s in Keto enhance thermogenesis and help suppress fat storage maintaining ketosis even with increased carbohydrates in the diet. This is very important allowing an increase in good carbs (cooked vegetables) that provide essential minerals to the body. Collagen peptides also modulate thermogenesis because it requires considerable energy for oxidation, thus increasing energy expenditure and weight loss.
Reduction in blood glucose levels
The caprylic acid in Keto increases ketone body production after ingestion along with insulin. So even with increased carbohydrates in the diet the increase insulin clears glucose reducing blood glucose spikes. Ketones then become the body’s primary source of energy.
Maintenance of lean body mass
When embarking on a weight loss program it is crucial to maintain muscle mass to maintain a healthy metabolism. The collagen in Keto contains 30% glycine that plays an important role in forming muscle tissue by converting glucose into energy therefore feeding muscle cells. As we age it is important to maintain muscle mass. Muscle burns more calories.
Helps Improve Digestion and Nutrient Absorption
MCT’s have a positive roll in balancing gut bacteria enhancing digestion and absorption of nutrients from food. A balanced microbiome is important for immune function as 80% of your immune system originates in the gut.
Leaky Gut Syndrome
If you suffer from leaky gut chances are that you are deficient in amino acids found in collagen. Collagen is the primary support to heal damaged tight junctions in the intestines.
Glyphosate (Roundup) is at the forefront of destructive chemicals in our environment that are responsible for damage to the intestinal tract. Glyphosate is sprayed on most of the wheat, corn and soy crops in the US. Glyphosate increases a protein in the intestines called zonulin that destroys tight junctions in the intestines allowing bacteria, foreign proteins and other toxins to enter the blood stream. Hello inflammation and autoimmune disease!
Amino acids in collagen such as glutamate build the tissue that lines the colon and GI tract and can help IBS, acid reflux, Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis.
Antibacterial, Antiviral and Antifungal Properties
The caprylic acid in Keto is a powerful antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral effective in maintenance of harmful bacteria including streptococcus, straphylococcus as well as other bacterial strains that cause viruses and transmitted diseases.
Medium-chain fats can help kill a wide range of pathogenic viruses and bacteria strains that cause digestive issues, including candida, constipation, diarrhea, food poisoning, stomachaches and so on.
Reduces fine lines and wrinkles
It is important to point out that collagen production slows as we age. Collagen is the superstructure for tissues throughout our body. The sagging of our face, wrinkling of our skin, thinning of our hair and nails can be traced to reduced collagen production. Studies show that supplementation with hydrolyzed collagen may increase the creation of collagen. Collagen peptides are high in specific amino acids such as Glycine and Proline that are especially needed for the production of new collagen. The collagen peptides stimulate certain cells (fibroblasts, osteoblasts) to build new collagen.
Improve skin smoothness
Collagen (the word is derived from the Greek kolla, which means "glue") is the most abundant protein in the human body. Collagen is the main component of connective tissue; it cements cells together and gives skin its structure and elasticity.
Collagen production begins to decline at a rate of about 1 percent a year in our mid-twenties and goes rapidly downhill in our forties and fifties, with the majority of women experiencing a 30 percent drop in the first few years post-menopause. Dryness, sagginess, dullness, and loss of plumpness are all due to a loss of collagen.
Reduction of Cellulite
Cellulite is caused by a reduction in connective tissue along with trapped fluid in the adipose tissue contributing to the loss of skin tone. Supplementation with collagen peptides thickens the dermis resulting improving elasticity and reducing the appearance of dimpling of the skin and protection from stretch marks.
Strengthens hair and nails
Collagen protein is the building block of your fingernails, hair and teeth. Adding collagen into your diet regimen can help keep your nails strong and possibly reverse signs of hair loss.
Improve Energy Levels and Your Mood
Your brain is largely made up of fatty acids, so you need a steady supply from your diet to feel your best, think clearly, perform well at work and stay sharp well into older age. Medium-chain fats are believed to be one of the most easily digested, utilized and protective fatty acids that exists.
MCT has a smaller molecular structure and is more soluble in water. Therefore, it is easier for your body to absorb and does not require this complicated digestive process. Whereas conventional fats are prone to being stored as body fat, MCT is transported directly from the small intestine to the liver by the portal vein. In the liver, some of the MCTs are turned into ketone bodies, which the muscles can use for energy. Some MCT's are used for thermogenesis, and a portion is converted to ATP, the energy currency of the cell. MCT, therefore is processed in the liver, so there is little left to be stored as fat.
Many ketogenic and MCT oil spokespeople say that MCT's energy sustaining powers can be explained as follows: when MCT oil is metabolized in the body, it behaves more like a carbohydrate than a fat. Remember that the fuel of preference for the body is carbohydrate. Unlike other fats, MCT oil does not go through the lymphatic system. Instead, it is transported directly to the liver where it is metabolized so it releases energy like a carbohydrate and creates lots of ketones (which can be used for fuel) in the process.
Improved athletic performance
Protein uptake through hydrolyzed collagen is about 97%. Furthermore, hydrolyzed collagen contains glycine and arginine that are 2 of the 3 main elements of creatine, whose presence in the body plays an important role during exercise, providing energy to the body and improving athletic performance.
Hydrolyzed collagen is a good form of protein, which can be used together with other forms of protein for weight control purposes. This is due to the fact that proteins are substances that make us feel satiated. Hydrolyzed collagen peptides are essential for sports nutrition since it contains 8 of the 9 basic amino acids. Increased protein intake reduces lean body mass loss during weight loss in athletes.
Hydrolyzed collagen peptides combined with caprylic acid are readily digested by the liver and used for energy. Keto would be ideal to take before training (roughly 30-45 minutes pre-workout) without a meal (especially for those on keto diets). If taken with a meal, give yourself at least an hour before training. The same advice goes for other energy boosting goals, i.e. mental or work related.
Restores muscle tone
A boost in collagen may increase metabolism by adding lean muscle mass to your frame and helping with the conversion of essential nutrients. One of glycine’s most important roles is helping form muscle tissue by converting glucose into energy that feeds muscle cells. And remember that retaining muscle mass is crucial as you age, since it helps support posture, bone health and burns more calories than fat.
Increased muscle growth and repair
Supplementation with Keto containing collagen peptides and MCT’s can protect the degradation of the connective tissues in athletes and could reduce the exercise induced increase of urinary collagen crosslinks.
Long term continuous strenuous exercise leads to collagen degradation in the body. These degradations are slow and progressive developments and symptoms such as pain only appear in advanced stages. Nutrient undersupply and nutrient deficiencies can accelerate these degenerative processes or increase inflammation. Collagen crosslinks of Pyridinoline (PD) and Deoxypyrolidin (DPD) in the urine of athletes are increased over a period of 2 years during training without supplementation. Urinary PD and DPD levels of collagen crosslinks increase after heavy and continuous exercise, indicating an increased degradation of connective tissue mass. Supplementation with collagen peptides can protect the degradation of the connecting tissues in athletes and could reduce the exercise induced increase of urinary collagen crosslinks.
Maintain the nitrogen balance
Numerous studies show that dietary protein needs increase for resistance and aerobic training individuals. Individuals aiming to maximize nitrogen balance would likely benefit from repeated ingestion of moderate amounts of protein (~20g) at regular intervals (~3h) throughout the day.
Protect joints and all connective tissue
Many clinical studies have reported that drinking 10 grams of hydrolyzed collagen every day, reduces pain in the joints especially in patients who have severe symptoms. This beneficial effect is due to the fact that the hydrolyzed collagen accumulates in the cartilages and stimulates collagen production by chondrocytes, the cells of the joints.
Osteoarthritis is common — the most frequent cause of joint pain. For some, it starts in our twenties, and by our seventies, osteoarthritis is certain. Regardless of your level of exercise, the passage of time means the classic osteoarthritis symptoms — joint pain and morning stiffness that worsens over time.
Osteoarthritis progresses gradually. Blame biomechanics and biochemistry. It starts with a breakdown of the cartilage matrix. Stage 2 progresses to erosion of the cartilage and a release of collagen fragments. Stage 3 is a chronic inflammatory response. The goals of treatment are to reduce inflammation and pain, and stop progressive disease. There’s no drug therapy that’s been show to actually improve joint function, reduce pain, or slow inflammation. Analgesics, such as Tylenol, and anti-inflammatories are mainstays, however they do not repair damage? Once it is damaged it is gone. Chondrocytes don’t seem to be able to repair the overall matrix — which is made mainly of collagen.
Hyaluronic acid is the major GAG component of the joint lubricating and shock absorbing synovial fluid. Hydrolyzed collagen is also the richest source of the primary amino acids that constitute collagen, cartilage and connective tissue, bone, tendon, ligament, joint, muscle, hair, skin and nails. These amino acids are glycine, proline, hydroxyproline, lysine, and hydroxylysine.
Hydrolyzed collagen has been used in Europe for decades and studies show it may improve both arthritis and osteoporosis. In German studies, seven to ten grams of hydrolyzed collagen protein per day for one to three months decreased the pain and stiffness of arthritis while improving joint function. Both the glycosaminoglycans and the collagen specific peptides, found in the hydrolyzed collagen, have been shown in a number of studies to help heal the joint - independent of other modalities.
Glycine and proline amino acids are essential to the stabilization and regeneration of the cartilage metabolism. This deficit can lead to a variety of serious degenerative joint diseases characterized by the destruction of joint cartilage such as osteoporosis.
As regards bones’ health, several studies have shown that daily intake of 10gr of hydrolyzed collagen for 4-24 weeks, increases bone density. It seems that the peptides of hydrolyzed collagen stimulate the activity of osteoblasts (essential substance for building bones) without affecting the activity of osteoclasts (substance that degrades bones).
Several studies on collagen, which represents 90% of organic bone mass, suggest that orally administering collagen peptides may provide beneficial effects on bone metabolism, especially in the calcium-deficient condition such as osteopenia, without obvious undesirable effects.
Improved mental clarity
A 2004 study published in The Journal of Neurobiology of Aging they found that the MCTs in coconut oil helped improved memory problems including Alzheimer’s disease in older adults. It only makes sense that a food that supplies fuel for your brain and also helps you absorb vitamins and minerals better will also make you feel more clearheaded, energetic and positive.
Balance hormone levels
Collagen amino acids are important for the maintenance of the endocrine system. All organs require collagen for maintenance and repair at a cellular level.
Maintains elasticity of blood vessels
The amino acid proline helps your artery walls release fat buildup in the bloodstream, shrinking the fat in the arteries and minimizing fat accumulation.
Proline plays an important role in combating arteriosclerosis, or hardening of the arteries. A leading cause of heart disease, arteriosclerosis occurs when the blood vessels, or arteries, that carry oxygen and nutrients from the heart to the rest of your body become thick and stiff from the buildup of fat on artery walls. This prevents the artery from expanding and contracting when your heart beats and can restrict blood flow to your organs and tissues. Proline enables the walls to release fat buildup into the bloodstream, decreasing the size of the blockages to the heart and surrounding vessels. Proline, therefore, decreases the pressure built up by these blockages, decreasing the risk of heart disease.
It’s also linked with the prevention of arteriosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) since it helps our arteries stay clear of dangerous plaque buildup. Arginine helps with nitric oxide production, which allows for better vasodilation — meaning the widening of arteries and relaxation of muscle cells and blood vessels that allows for better circulation.
Protect the Heart
A 2010 study published in The Journal of Neutraceuticals and Functional Foods reported that MCTs can help prevent the development of metabolic syndrome — a term given to a cluster of metabolic disorders such as abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension and impaired fasting glucose levels. MCTs are able to help decrease cardiovascular disease and mortality in general due to helping lower odds of becoming obese. Most likely, they have this positive effect because they are anti-inflammatory, easy to digest, satiating and provide ketones used for energy.
MCT oil helps feed your brain cells and also improves your gut health — which is largely connected to cognitive functioning thanks to the “gut-brain connection.
Maintain Muscle mass
Sarcopenia is the age-related loss of muscle mass and is associated with reduced strength, loss of bone mass, decreased basal metabolic rate, and an increase in body fat. Exercise (both resistance and aerobic) in combination with adequate protein and energy intake is the key component of the prevention and management of sarcopenia.
The most abundant amino acid in collagen is glycine, an immunonutrient that supports healthy inflammation response and also promotes deeper, more restorative sleep. Human and animal studies have shown that glycine found in hydrolyzed collagen affects neurotransmitters in a way that promotes better quality sleep.
• In animals, findings show that oral administration of glycine increases extracellular serotonin release in the prefrontal cortex. The results of three human trials demonstrate that glycine improves sleep quality in a subjective and objective manner with no serious adverse effects.
• Research shows that glutamine has benefits for preventing anxiety, tension, sleep disorders/insomnia, a lack of concentration, poor digestive health, a weakened immune system and low energy. According to a report printed the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, it’s been shown to have positive effects of production of growth hormone, which can improve aspects of mental health, such as helping with release of GABA that boosts feelings of “inner calm and tranquility.”
Hydrolyzed collagen supplements present no health risks, as they are not a pharmaceutical drug but a food free of additives and preservatives. The US federal Drug Administration (FDA) has even rated collagen products (including hydrolyzed and collagen) at the highest safety category upon clinical testing: GRAS (generally recognized as safe), a category comprising sugar, vitamins, and salt.
Biomed Environ Sci. 2015 Feb;28(2):97-104. doi: 10.3967/bes2015.012.
Medium-Chain Triglyceride Activated Brown Adipose Tissue and Induced Reduction of Fat Mass in C57BL/6J Mice Fed High-fat Diet.
Zhang Y1, Xu Q1, Liu YH1, Zhang XS1, Wang J1, Yu XM1, Zhang RX1, Xue C2, Yang XY1, Xue CY1.
To investigate activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) stimulated by medium-chain triglyceride (MCT).
30 Male C57BL/6J obese mice induced by fed high fat diet (HFD) were divided into 2 groups, and fed another HFD with 2% MCT or long-chain triglyceride (LCT) respectively for 12 weeks. Body weight, blood biochemical variables, interscapular brown fat tissue (IBAT) mass, expressions of mRNA and protein of beta 3-adrenergic receptors (β3-AR), uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1), hormone sensitive lipase (HSL), protein kinase A (PKA), and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) in IBAT were measured.
Significant decrease in body weight and body fat mass was observed in MCT group as compared with LCT group (P<0.05) after 12 weeks. Greater increases in IBAT mass was observed in MCT group than in LCT group (P<0.05). Blood TG, TC, LDL-C in MCT group were decreased significantly, meanwhile blood HDL-C, ratio of HDL-C/LDL-C and norepinephrine were increased markedly. Expressions of mRNA and protein of β3-AR, UCP1, PKA, HSL, ATGL in BAT were greater in MCT group than in LCT group (P<0.05).
Our results suggest that MCT stimulated the activation of BAT, possible via norepinephrine pathway, which might partially contribute to reduction of the body fat mass in obese mice fed high fat diet.
Copyright © 2015 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.
J Acad Nutr Diet. 2015 Feb;115(2):249-63. doi: 10.1016/j.jand.2014.10.022.
Effects of medium-chain triglycerides on weight loss and body composition: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Mumme K, Stonehouse W.
Medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) may result in negative energy balance and weight loss through increased energy expenditure and lipid oxidation. However, results from human intervention studies investigating the weight reducing potential of MCTs, have been mixed.
To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing the effects of MCTs, specifically C8:0 and C10:0, to long-chain triglycerides (LCTs) on weight loss and body composition in adults. Changes in blood lipid levels were secondary outcomes.
Randomized controlled trials >3 weeks' duration conducted in healthy adults were identified searching Web of Knowledge, Discover, PubMed, Scopus, New Zealand Science, and Cochrane CENTRAL until March 2014 with no language restriction. Identified trials were assessed for bias. Mean differences were pooled and analyzed using inverse variance models with fixed effects. Heterogeneity between studies was calculated using I(2) statistic. An I(2)>50% or P<0.10 indicated heterogeneity.
Thirteen trials (n=749) were identified. Compared with LCTs, MCTs decreased body weight (-0.51 kg [95% CI-0.80 to -0.23 kg]; P<0.001; I(2)=35%); waist circumference (-1.46 cm [95% CI -2.04 to -0.87 cm]; P<0.001; I(2)=0%), hip circumference (-0.79 cm [95% CI -1.27 to -0.30 cm]; P=0.002; I(2)=0%), total body fat (standard mean difference -0.39 [95% CI -0.57 to -0.22]; P<0.001; I(2)=0%), total subcutaneous fat (standard mean difference -0.46 [95% CI -0.64 to -0.27]; P<0.001; I(2)=20%), and visceral fat (standard mean difference -0.55 [95% CI -0.75 to -0.34]; P<0.001; I(2)=0%). No differences were seen in blood lipid levels. Many trials lacked sufficient information for a complete quality assessment, and commercial bias was detected. Although heterogeneity was absent, study designs varied with regard to duration, dose, and control of energy intake.
Replacement of LCTs with MCTs in the diet could potentially induce modest reductions in body weight and composition without adversely affecting lipid profiles. However, further research is required by independent research groups using large, well-designed studies to confirm the efficacy of MCT and to determine the dosage needed for the management of a healthy body weight and composition.
Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nutrients. 2016 May 12;8(5). pii: E281. doi: 10.3390/nu8050281.
Gut Microbiota and Metabolic Health: The Potential Beneficial Effects of a Medium ChainTriglyceride Diet in Obese Individuals.
Rial SA1, Karelis AD2, Bergeron KF3, Mounier C4.
Obesity and associated metabolic complications, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D), are in constant increase around the world. While most obese patients show several metabolic and biometric abnormalities and comorbidities, a subgroup of patients representing 3% to 57% of obese adults, depending on the diagnosis criteria, remains metabolically healthy. Among many other factors, the gut microbiota is now identified as a determining factor in the pathogenesis of metabolically unhealthy obese (MUHO) individuals and in obesity-related diseases such as endotoxemia, intestinal and systemic inflammation, as well as insulin resistance. Interestingly, recent studies suggest that an optimal healthy-like gut microbiota structure may contribute to the metabolically healthy obese (MHO) phenotype. Here, we describe how dietary medium chain triglycerides (MCT), previously found to promote lipid catabolism, energy expenditure and weight loss, can ameliorate metabolic health via their capacity to improve both intestinal ecosystem and permeability. MCT-enriched diets could therefore be used to manage metabolic diseases through modification of gut microbiota.
Bacteroidetes; Firmicutes; endotoxemia; gut microbiota; lipopolysaccharide; medium chain fatty acids; medium chain triglycerides; metabolic syndrome; metabolically healthy obese; metabolically unhealthy obese; non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; obesity
Double-blind, placebo-controlled studies investigating the anti-aging properties of collagen have found that 2.5–5 grams of collagen hydrolysate used among women aged 35–55 once daily for eight weeks significantly improved skin elasticity, skin moisture, transepidermal water loss (dryness) and skin roughness, all with little to no side effects. (1) This makes collagen one of the best natural skin care ingredients available.
Asserin J1, Lati E2, Shioya T3, Prawitt J4.
Skin dryness and an accelerated fragmentation of the collagen network in the dermis are hallmarks of skin aging. Nutrition is a key factor influencing skin health and consequently its appearance. A wide range of dietary supplements is offered to improve skin health. Collagen peptides are used as a bioactive ingredient in nutricosmetic products and have been shown in preclinical studies to improve skin barrier function, to induce the synthesis of collagen and hyaluronic acid, and to promote fibroblast growth and migration. Our aim was to investigate the effect of oral supplementation with specific collagen peptides on skin hydration and the dermal collagen network in a clinical setting.
Two placebo-controlled clinical trials were run to assess the effect of a daily oral supplementation with collagen peptides on skin hydration by corneometry, on collagen density by high-resolution ultrasound and on collagen fragmentation by reflectance confocal microscopy. Human skin explants were used to study extracellular matrix components in the presence of collagen peptides ex vivo.
Oral collagen peptide supplementation significantly increased skin hydration after 8 weeks of intake. The collagen density in the dermis significantly increased and the fragmentation of the dermal collagen network significantly decreased already after 4 weeks of supplementation. Both effects persisted after 12 weeks. Ex vivo experiments demonstrated that collagen peptides induce collagen as well as glycosaminoglycan production, offering a mechanistic explanation for the observed clinical effects.
The oral supplementation with collagen peptides is efficacious to improve hallmarks of skin aging.
Reduction of Cellulite
A double-blind, placebo-controlled study investigating the anti-aging properties of collagen conducted by the University of Kiel’s Department of Dermatology found that 2.5—5 grams of collagen hydrolysate used among women aged 35–55 once daily for eight weeks supports skin elasticity, skin moisture, transepidermal water loss (dryness) and skin roughness. At the end of only four weeks, those using collagen showed a statistically significant improvement in comparison to those using a placebo with regard to skin moisture and skin evaporation, plus noticeable decreases in signs of accelerated aging.
© 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Dietary Supplementation with Specific Collagen Peptides Has a Body Mass Index-Dependent Beneficial Effect on Cellulite Morphology
Michael Schunck,1 Vivian Zague,2 Steffen Oesser,1 and Ehrhardt Proksch3
It has been shown that noninvasive measures such as skin profile and those obtained from ultrasound images exhibit a positive correlation among them and the subjective perception of cellulite.28 Dermal thickness may be reduced when it is more compact, and the dermal/hypodermal interface may be shortened when the invagination of adipose tissue toward the deep dermis is reduced as in the slight degree of cellulite.29,30 Ultrasound images captured before treatment clearly represented the irregular broken line between dermis and hypodermis, and hypoechoic structures can be interpreted as fat bulging from subcutaneous tissue into the upper-layer dermal tissue. After treatment with BCP, a significant reduction in dermal thickness, elevated echogenicity indicating increased and organized collagen tissue, and reduction of hypoechoic areas were demonstrated.
The results obtained in this study demonstrated that an oral supplementation with specific bovine collagen peptide over a period of 6 months led to a clear improvement of the skin appearance in women suffering from moderate cellulite. In addition, the data showed the marked potential of BCP to improve the skin morphology of cellulite-affected areas, providing new evidence of BCP's beneficial effects and postulating a new therapy strategy for cellulite
The journal Skin Pharmacology and and Physiology published a “gold standard”, double blind, placebo controlled study in 2014 which demonstrated a causal relationship between a 12-week daily regimen of orally consumed hydrolyzed collagen and significantly improved skin elasticity, structure, and moisture (6).
Hair diameter increased up to 49%
Healthy, more dense hair – University of Milan
A study performed by the Pharmacology Department of the University of Milan (Professor Morganti, 1983) indicated that the activity of hair glands increased - directly or indirectly - as a result of collagen uptake. The results of a tri-monthly administration to patients showed that in some cases the hair diameter increased up to 49%, whereas an average increase of 35% was observed.
Healthier and stronger hair – Food and Nutrition research Department of New Jersey
A study of Food and Nutrition Research Department of New Jersey in 1976 concluded that: "Approximately 70% of the participants indicated an increase in hair diameter from 5 to 45%. In a period of 6 months after the collagen dosage discontinuation, hair diameter returned to its original level.
A study published in the Journal of Investigative Dermatology found that there’s an “essential relationships between extracellular matrix (ECM) and hair follicle regeneration, suggesting that collagen could be a potential therapeutic target for hair loss and other skin-related diseases.” (10)
Increased muscle growth and repair
Br J Nutr. 2015 Oct 28;114(8):1237-45. doi: 10.1017/S0007114515002810. Epub 2015 Sep 10.
Collagen peptide supplementation in combination with resistance training improves body composition and increases muscle strength in elderly sarcopenic men: a randomised controlled trial.
Zdzieblik D1, Oesser S2, Baumstark MW3, Gollhofer A1, König D1.
Protein supplementation in combination with resistance training may increase muscle mass and muscle strength in elderly subjects. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of post-exercise protein supplementation with collagen peptides v. placebo on muscle mass and muscle function following resistance training in elderly subjects with sarcopenia. A total of fifty-three male subjects (72•2 (sd 4•68) years) with sarcopenia (class I or II) completed this randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study. All the participants underwent a 12-week guided resistance training programme (three sessions per week) and were supplemented with either collagen peptides (treatment group (TG)) (15 g/d) or silica as placebo (placebo group (PG)). Fat-free mass (FFM), fat mass (FM) and bone mass (BM) were measured before and after the intervention using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Isokinetic quadriceps strength (IQS) of the right leg was determined and sensory motor control (SMC) was investigated by a standardised one-leg stabilisation test. Following the training programme, all the subjects showed significantly higher (P<0•01) levels for FFM, BM, IQS and SMC with significantly lower (P<0•01) levels for FM. The effect was significantly more pronounced in subjects receiving collagen peptides: FFM (TG +4•2 (sd 2•31) kg/PG +2•9 (sd 1•84) kg; P<0•05); IQS (TG +16•5 (sd 12•9) Nm/PG +7•3 (sd 13•2) Nm; P<0•05); and FM (TG -5•4 (sd 3•17) kg/PG -3•5 (sd 2•16) kg; P<0•05). Our data demonstrate that compared with placebo, collagen peptide supplementation in combination with resistance training further improved body composition by increasing FFM, muscle strength and the loss in FM.
The Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology published a study where researchers demonstrated that the ingestion of collagen peptides beneficially affects the size and composition of collagen fibrils in the Achilles tendon thus potentially improving its mechanical properties (3)
Protect joints and all connective tissue
Curr Med Res Opin. 2008 May;24(5):1485-96. doi: 10.1185/030079908X291967 . Epub 2008 Apr 15.
24-Week study on the use of collagen hydrolysate as a dietary supplement in athletes with activity-related joint pain.
Clark KL1, Sebastianelli W, Flechsenhar KR, Aukermann DF, Meza F, Millard RL, Deitch JR, Sherbondy PS, Albert A.
Collagen hydrolysate is a nutritional supplement that has been shown to exert an anabolic effect on cartilage tissue. Its administration appears beneficial in patients with osteoarthritis.
To investigate the effect of collagen hydrolysate on activity-related joint pain in athletes who are physically active and have no evidence of joint disease.
DESIGN AND SETTING:
A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study was conducted at Penn State University in University Park, Pennsylvania. Parameters including joint pain, mobility, and inflammation were evaluated with the use of a visual analogue scale during a 24-week study phase.
Between September 2005 and June 2006, 147 subjects who competed on a varsity team or a club sport were recruited. Data from 97 of 147 subjects could be statistically evaluated.
One hundred and forty-seven subjects (72 male, 75 female) were randomly assigned to two groups: a group (n = 73) receiving 25 mL of a liquid formulation that contained 10 g of collagen hydrolysate (CH-Alpha) and a group (n = 74) receiving a placebo, which consisted of 25 mL of liquid that contained xanthan.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:
The primary efficacy parameter was the change in the visual analogue scales from baseline during the study phase in relation to the parameters referring to pain, mobility, and inflammation.
When data from all subjects (n = 97) were evaluated, six parameters showed statistically significant changes with the dietary supplement collagen hydrolysate (CH) compared with placebo: joint pain at rest, assessed by the physician (CH vs. placebo (-1.37 +/- 1.78 vs. -0.90 +/- 1.74 (p = 0.025)) and five parameters assessed by study participants: joint pain when walking (-1.11 +/- 1.98 vs. -0.46 +/- 1.63, p = 0.007), joint pain when standing (-0.97 +/- 1.92 vs. -0.43 +/- 1.74, p = 0.011), joint pain at rest (-0.81 +/- 1.77 vs. -0.39 +/- 1.56, p = 0.039), joint pain when carrying objects (-1.45 +/- 2.11 vs. -0.83 +/- 1.71, p = 0.014) and joint pain when lifting (-1.79 +/- 2.11 vs. -1.26 +/- 2.09, p = 0.018). When a subgroup analysis of subjects with knee arthralgia (n = 63) was performed, the difference between the effect of collagen hydrolysate vs. placebo was more pronounced. The parameter joint pain at rest, assessed by the physician, had a statistical significance level of p = 0.001 (-1.67 +/- 1.89 vs. -0.86 +/- 1.77), while the other five parameters based on the participants' assessments were also statistically significant: joint pain when walking (p = 0.003 (-1.38 +/- 2.12 vs. -0.54 +/- 1.65)), joint pain when standing (p = 0.015 (-1.17 +/- 2.06 vs. -0.50 +/- 1.68)), joint pain at rest with (p = 0.021 (-1.01 +/-1.92 vs. -0.47 +/- 1.63)), joint pain when running a straight line (p = 0.027 (-1.50 +/- 1.97 vs. -0.80 +/- 1.66)) and joint pain when changing direction (p = 0.026 (-1.87 +/- 2.18 vs. -1.20 +/- 2.10)).
This was the first clinical trial of 24-weeks duration to show improvement of joint pain in athletes who were treated with the dietary supplement collagen hydrolysate. The results of this study have implications for the use of collagen hydrolysate to support joint health and possibly reduce the risk of joint deterioration in a high-risk group. Despite the study's size and limitations, the results suggest that athletes consuming collagen hydrolysate can reduce parameters (such as pain) that have a negative impact on athletic performance. Future studies are needed to support these findings.
Change in knee osteoarthritis cartilage detected by delayed gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance imaging following treatment with collagen hydrolysate: a pilot randomized controlled trial.
McAlindon TE1, Nuite M, Krishnan N, Ruthazer R, Price LL, Burstein D, Griffith J, Flechsenhar K.
To determine whether either of two magnetic resonance imaging approaches - delayed gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of cartilage (dGEMRIC), or T2 mapping - can detect short-term changes in knee hyaline cartilage among individuals taking a formulation of collagen hydrolysate.
Single center, prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, pilot trial of collagen hydrolysate for mild knee osteoarthritis (OA). Participants were allowed to continue the prior analgesic use. The primary outcome was change in dGEMRIC T1 relaxation time in the cartilage regions of interest at the 24-week timepoint. Secondary endpoints included the change in dGEMRIC T1 relaxation time between baseline and 48 weeks, the change in T2 relaxation time at 0, 24 and 48 weeks, the symptom and functional measures obtained at each of the visits, and overall analgesic use.
Among a sample of 30 randomized subjects the dGEMRIC score increased in the medial and lateral tibial regions of interest (median increase of 29 and 41 ms respectively) in participants assigned to collagen hydrolysate but decreased (median decline 37 and 36 ms respectively) in the placebo arm with the changes between the two groups at 24 weeks reaching significance. No other significant changes between the two groups were seen in the other four regions, or in any of the T2 values or in the clinical outcomes.
These preliminary results suggest that the dGEMRIC technique may be able to detect change in proteoglycan content in knee cartilage among individuals taking collagen hydrolysate after 24 weeks.
Bone. 2010 Mar;46(3):827-34. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2009.10.035. Epub 2009 Nov 4.
Hydrolyzed collagen improves bone metabolism and biomechanical parameters in ovariectomized mice: an in vitro and in vivo study.
Guillerminet F1, Beaupied H, Fabien-Soulé V, Tomé D, Benhamou CL, Roux C, Blais A.
Collagen has an important structural function in several organs of the body, especially in bone and cartilage. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hydrolyzed collagen on bone metabolism, especially in the perspective of osteoporosis treatment and understanding of its mechanism of action. An in vivo study was carried out in 12-week-old female C3H/HeN mice. These were either ovariectomized (OVX) or sham-operated (SHAM) and fed for 12 weeks with a diet containing 10 or 25 g/kg of hydrolyzed collagen. We measured bone mineral density (BMD) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX), marker of bone resorption, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), marker of bone formation, were assayed after 4 and 12 weeks. Femur biomechanical properties were studied by a 3-point bending test and bone architecture by microtomography. The BMD for OVX mice fed the diet including 25 g/kg of hydrolyzed collagen was significantly higher as compared to OVX mice. The blood CTX level significantly decreased when mice were fed with either of the diets containing hydrolyzed collagen. Finally, we have shown a significant increase in bone strength correlated to geometrical changes for the OVX mice fed the 25 g/kg hydrolyzed collagen diet. Primary cultures of murine bone cells were established from the tibia and femur marrow of BALB/c mice. The growth and differentiation of osteoclasts and osteoblasts cultured with different concentrations (from 0.2 to 1.0 mg/mL) of bovine, porcine or fish hydrolyzed collagens (2 or 5 kDa) were measured. Hydrolyzed collagens (2 or 5 kDa) in the tissue culture medium did not have any significant effects on cell growth as compared to controls. However, there was a significant and dose-dependent increase in ALP activity, a well-known marker of osteogenesis, and a decrease in octeoclast activity in primary culture of bone cells cultured with hydrolyzed collagens (2 kDa only) as compared to the control. It is concluded that dietary hydrolyzed collagen increases osteoblast activity (as measured in primary tissue culture), which acts on bone remodeling and increases the external diameter of cortical areas of the femurs.
Improved mental clarity
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2016 Mar;1367(1):12-20. doi: 10.1111/nyas.12999. Epub 2016 Jan 14.
Can ketones compensate for deteriorating brain glucose uptake during aging? Implications for the risk and treatment of Alzheimer's disease.
Cunnane SC1,2,3, Courchesne-Loyer A1,3, St-Pierre V1,3, Vandenberghe C1,3, Pierotti T1,4, Fortier M1, Croteau E1, Castellano CA1.
Brain glucose uptake is impaired in Alzheimer's disease (AD). A key question is whether cognitive decline can be delayed if this brain energy defect is at least partly corrected or bypassed early in the disease. The principal ketones (also called ketone bodies), β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate, are the brain's main physiological alternative fuel to glucose. Three studies in mild-to-moderate AD have shown that, unlike with glucose, brain ketone uptake is not different from that in healthy age-matched controls. Published clinical trials demonstrate that increasing ketone availability to the brain via moderate nutritional ketosis has a modest beneficial effect on cognitive outcomes in mild-to-moderate AD and in mild cognitive impairment. Nutritional ketosis can be safely achieved by a high-fat ketogenic diet, by supplements providing 20-70 g/day of medium-chain triglycerides containing the eight- and ten-carbon fatty acids octanoate and decanoate, or by ketone esters. Given the acute dependence of the brain on its energy supply, it seems reasonable that the development of therapeutic strategies aimed at AD mandates consideration of how the underlying problem of deteriorating brain fuel supply can be corrected or delayed.
© 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.
Alzheimer's disease; acetoacetate (AcAc); beta-hydroxybutyrate (β-HB); glucose; ketones; medium-chain triglycerides (MCT)
Nutr Res. 2016 Sep;36(9):964-73. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2016.06.004. Epub 2016 Jun 4.
Medium-chain triglycerides promote macrophage reverse cholesterol transport and improve atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient mice fed a high-fat diet.
Zhang X1, Zhang Y1, Liu Y1, Wang J1, Xu Q1, Yu X1, Yang X1, Liu Z1, Xue C2.
We previously observed that medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) could reduce body fat mass and improve the metabolism of cholesterol. We hypothesized that MCTs can improve atherosclerosis by promoting the reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) process. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the roles of MCTs in macrophage RCT and the progression of atherosclerosis. To test this hypothesis, 30 4-week-old ApoE-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice were randomly divided into 2 groups and fed a diet of 2% MCTs or long-chain triglycerides (LCTs) for 16 weeks. Ten age- and sex-matched C57BL/6J mice were fed a diet of 2% LCTs as the control. Macrophage-to-feces RCT was assessed in vivo by intraperitoneal injection of RAW 264.7 macrophages containing (3)H-labeled cholesterol, and atherosclerotic plaques were measured. The mRNA and protein expressions were determined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses, respectively. There was a greater decrease in body fat mass, atherosclerotic plaques, and an improvement in serum lipid profiles. In addition, the MCT mice group showed an increase in (3)H-tracer in the feces and a decrease in the liver. Significantly higher levels of mRNA and protein expression of hepatic ATP-binding cassette transporter A1, ATP-binding cassette transporter G5, cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase, and intestinal ATP-binding cassette transporter G8, as well as lower levels of expression of intestinal Niemann-Pick C1-like 1, were found in the MCT group. These results suggest that MCTs could obviously promote macrophage RCT and improve atherosclerosis in ApoE(-/-) mice, indicating that MCTs have the potential to prevent cardiovascular disease.
Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.PMID: 27632916 DOI: 10.1016/j.nutres.2016.06.004
J Med Food. 2008 Sep;11(3):560-7. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2007.0573.
Evaluation of the hypotensive potential of bovine and
porcine collagen hydrolysates.
Faria M1, da Costa EL, Gontijo JA, Netto FM.
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity and antihypertensive activity of bovine and porcine collagen hydrolysates in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were investigated. The hydrolyzed collagens were subjected to ultrafiltration using membranes with cutoffs of 30-50 kDa (permeate P1), 5-8 kDa (permeate P2), or 1-2 kDa (permeate P3) in order to obtain products with a narrower range of molecular size. The hydrolyzed bovine and porcine collagens and their permeates showed low ACE inhibitory activity (50% inhibitory concentration [IC(50)] = 5.42-15.58 mg of protein/mL). However, after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, a significant increase in the ACE inhibitory potency of the hydrolyzed collagens was observed (IC(50) = 0.97-4.02 mg of protein/mL). Permeates had a higher ACE inhibitory activity and hypotensive activity than non-ultrafiltered hydrolysates. The P1 permeate of bovine and porcine collagen and the P3 fraction of the porcine collagen hydrolysate exhibited the best antihypertensive activity in vivo, promoting a maximum reduction in blood pressure of 22 mm Hg, 21.33 mm Hg, and 21.33 mm Hg, respectively, while lisinopril promoted a maximum reduction of 51.00 mm Hg. These results suggest that the commercial collagen hydrolysates of bovine and porcine origin may be a potential source of bioactive peptides.
J Pharmacol Sci. 2012;118(2):145-8. Epub 2012 Jan 27.
New therapeutic strategy for amino acid medicine: glycine improves the quality of sleep.
Bannai M1, Kawai N.
Glycine is a non-essential amino acid that has indispensable roles in both excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission via N-methyl-D-aspartate type glutamate receptors and glycine receptors, respectively. We recently reported that glycine ingestion before bedtime significantly ameliorated subjective sleep quality in individuals with insomniac tendencies. Oral administration of glycine to rats was found to induce a significant increase in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid glycine concentrations and a significant decrease in the core body temperature associated with an increase in cutaneous blood flow. The decline in the core body temperature might be a mechanism underlying glycine's effect on sleep, as the onset of sleep is known to involve a decrease in the core body temperature. Moreover, a low core body temperature is maintained during sleep in humans. Pharmacological studies investigating the mechanisms of glycine on sleep were also performed. In this review, we will describe both our recent findings regarding how and where orally administered glycine acts and findings from our rat study and human trials.
Front Neurol. 2012 Apr 18;3:61. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2012.00061. eCollection 2012.
The effects of glycine on subjective daytime performance in partially sleep-restricted healthy volunteers.
Bannai M1, Kawai N, Ono K, Nakahara K, Murakami N.
Approximately 30% of the general population suffers from insomnia. Given that insomnia causes many problems, amelioration of the symptoms is crucial. Recently, we found that a non-essential amino acid, glycine subjectively and objectively improves sleep quality in humans who have difficulty sleeping. We evaluated the effects of glycine on daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and performances in sleep-restricted healthy subjects. Sleep was restricted to 25% less than the usual sleep time for three consecutive nights. Before bedtime, 3 g of glycine or placebo were ingested, sleepiness, and fatigue were evaluated using the visual analog scale (VAS) and a questionnaire, and performance were estimated by personal computer (PC) performance test program on the following day. In subjects given glycine, the VAS data showed a significant reduction in fatigue and a tendency toward reduced sleepiness. These observations were also found via the questionnaire, indicating that glycine improves daytime sleepiness and fatigue induced by acute sleep restriction. PC performance test revealed significant improvement in psychomotor vigilance test. We also measured plasma melatonin and the expression of circadian-modulated genes expression in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) to evaluate the effects of glycine on circadian rhythms. Glycine did not show significant effects on plasma melatonin concentrations during either the dark or light period. Moreover, the expression levels of clock genes such as Bmal1 and Per2 remained unchanged. However, we observed a glycine-induced increase in the neuropeptides arginine vasopressin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in the light period. Although no alterations in the circadian clock itself were observed, our results indicate that glycine modulated SCN function. Thus, glycine modulates certain neuropeptides in the SCN and this phenomenon may indirectly contribute to improving the occasional sleepiness and fatigue induced by sleep restriction.
During the synthesis from glutamine to glutamic acids, the brain is protected from the toxic effects of ammonia. This protection against the cell toxin prevents impediments to brain functions and improves long and short term memory.
Patients in states of exhaustion and who have cognitive brain dysfunctions often have a glutamic acid deficiency. Anxiety, tension, sleep disorders and insomnia and a lack of concentration are all connected to this. Glutamine increases the production of the gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA). GABA is an important neurotransmitter which acts like a lock keeper to slow down the sodium channels between the nerve cells in the brain and is therefore like a natural tranquilizer. If the body has enough glutamine, it can build GABA which can have positive results such as inner calm and tranquility, also in stressful situations, improved concentration levels and a more peaceful and fulfilling sleep.1
Who would benefit from Keto?